Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek ἀρχαιολογία, archaiologia – ἀρχαῖος, archaīos, “primal, ancient, old”; and -λογία, -logia) is the science that studies human cultures through the recovery, documentation, analysis, and interpretation of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, features, biofacts, and landscapes. Because archaeology’s aim is to understand mankind, it is a humanistic endeavor.
Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/, from Greek ἄνθρωπος, anthrōpos, “human”; -λογία, -logia) is the study of humanity. Anthropology has origins in the natural sciences, and the humanities. Ethnography is both one of its primary methods and the text that is written as a result of the practice of anthropology and its elements.
Since the work of Franz Boas and Bronisław Malinowski in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, anthropology has been distinguished from other social science disciplines by its emphasis on in-depth examination of context, cross-cultural comparisons (socio-cultural anthropology is by nature a comparative discipline), and the importance it places on long-term, experiential immersion in the area of research, often known as participant-observation. Cultural anthropology in particular has emphasized cultural relativity and the use of findings to frame cultural critiques. This has been particularly prominent in the United States, from Boas’s arguments against 19th-century racial ideology, through Margaret Mead’s advocacy for gender equality and sexual liberation, to current criticisms of post-colonial oppression and promotion of multiculturalism.
- 2008-Class Archeology, Dan Potter & Dee Dee Green Download White Site Handout
- 2012 class Archeology, Donny Hamilton renovation of George W. Beard stone house
- Prehistoric Texas Archaeology 2009 Master Naturalist
- Cache Diversity on the Southern Plains
- A Steatite Vessel Rim Sherd, San Saba Texas: Consideration of Possible Late Prehistoric Connections between the Northwestern and Southern Plains
- Texas Beyond History web site – the virtual museum of Texas cultural heritage.
- Brazos Valley Museum of Natural History
- Book, at Amazon: “Storms Brewed in Other Men’s Worlds”, Elizabeth A.H. Johns Early explorers of the Southwest.
- Book, at UT Press: “Historic Native Peoples of Texas”, William C. Foster Indian lifeways during early European exploration.
- Book, at Amazon: “The Narrative of Cabeza de Vaca”, Alva Nunez Cabeza de Vaca Translated edition of this early explorer.
- Online Book, at El Paso Community College: “Travels in Texas”, Cabeza de Vaca History of the first documented explorer of Texas.
- Book, at UT Press: “The Native Americans of the Texas Edwards Plateau, 1582-1799”, Maria F. Wade New information from previously unused sources.
- The Tonkowa Nation, from Native Americans website.
- Web site of Dr. Alston V. Thoms, A&M Associate Professor.
- Oldest human made art found on clam shell – half a million years old!
- 40 million year old carnivorous plant fossil found, uses symbiotic relationship with bugs to digest prey then consumes their droppings.
Field Trip Information
April 15, 2008 Field Trip – Sugarloaf Mountain, Gause
Information regarding private land will not be posted on this web site. This special field trip has been coordinated and permitted by the landowner. Please remember that trespassing without landowner consent is a violation of state law.The attached presentation by Alston Thoms, Professor of Anthropology, Texas A&M, covers “Native History and Foodways in the Post Oak Savannah: A Lower Brazos River Basin Perspective”, and includes native Indian history and the explorations of Cabeza de Vaca.